By Joao H. Bastos
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Extra info for Athlete Performance and Injuries
2. 6) is a heme enzyme whose main role involves controlling H2O2 concentrations in human cells, converting H2O2 into H2O and O2. With SOD and glutathione peroxidase, CAT constitutes a primary defense against oxidative stress (Ambrosone et al. 2005). , 2001), the CAT gene presents a benign polymorphism, CAT 21A/T (ref SNP ID: rs7943316), located inside the promoter region close to the start site (Ukkola et al. 2001; Góth et al. 2004). , 2004), besides the heterozygous AT being associated with higher values of mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) in runners.
2007). In its active form it consists of two subunits, M and B, expressed by distinct genes. 3. By the combination of CKM and CKB subunits, three dimeric isoforms are formed, structuring in CK-MM, predominantly in skeletal muscle; CK-BB, predominantly in the brain; and CK-MB, predominantly in the myocardium. , 2007). Skeletal muscle contains almost entirely CK-MM, with small amounts of CK-MB. , 2007). , 2006). , 2007). Additionally, type I muscle fibers, predominantly recruited in endurance sports and recognized by the predominance of aerobic oxidative metabolism, present an inverse relationship with CK-MM activity.
1997; Eikelboom et al. 1999; Anderson et al. 2000). , 2008), the variant alleles of the MTHFR gene could contribute, in the course of time, to a lower oxygen supply to the heart in those endurance athletes who exercise strenuously, reducing cardiovascular fitness and thus performance, since they have been associated with increased Hcy. In fact, MTHFR C677T polymorphism has been associated with a lower hemoglobin level in a healthy exercise-trained population (Fortunato et al. 2007). Moreover, hemolysis can occur as a result of mechanical trauma in the capillaries of runners’ feet 32 Ana Luisa Miranda-Vilela (Carlson and Mawdsley, 1986), which would compromise performance still more in carriers of these variants.