By Joseph M. Hendrie (auth.), Pamela L. Lassahn, Debu Majumdar, George F. Brockett (eds.)
Over the final 30 years, reactor protection know-how has advanced now not a lot from a necessity to get over injuries or incidents, yet essentially from many teams within the nuclear neighborhood asking hypo thetical, looking out (what if) ~uestions. This ~uestioning has certainly paid off in developing preventive measures for plenty of different types of occasions and strength injuries. stipulations, corresponding to reactivity tours, huge holiday, lack of coolant, center soften, and include ment integrity loss, to call a number of, have been all at one time themes of protracted discussions on hypothesized occasions. traditionally, a lot of those became multiyear, large-scale study courses geared toward resolving the "what ifs. " For the subject of expected and irregular plant transients, how ever, the looking ~uestions and the examine weren't so prolific till the mid-1970s. at the moment, probabilistic possibility methodolo gies started to let us know we should always switch our emphasis in reactor protection examine and improvement and concentration extra on small pipe breaks and plant transients. 3 Mile Island punctuated that message in 1979. The plant brief subject zone is a multidisciplinary topic regarding not just the nuclear, fluid move, and warmth move applied sciences, but additionally the synergistics of those with the reactor regulate platforms, the security s;,"stems, operator activities, upkeep or even administration and the commercial issues of a given plant.
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Additional info for Anticipated and Abnormal Plant Transients in Light Water Reactors: Volume 1
And with better operator training, with the technical advisors at hand, with transient management concepts, shift crews are much better prepared to use the emergency procedures correctly. They are also much better prepared to know when it is time to go outside procedures to avoid a serious event. We have provided and encouraged this latter capability--the capability of the shift crew to think for itself in off-normal conditions. And that is all to the good. 9 But now a caution to the regulators, particularly the inspectors.
The key requirement for such a model is to be able 35 to account for the detailed thermal hydraulic conditions required to define radionuclide retention. The reason this area of transient analysis is so important is that it be~omes the technical basis for a more realistic and quantitative source term that dictates offsite consequences of a nuclear plant accident. While work on such models continues, it is constructive to reflect on the extensive amount of risk assessment work that has been going on, especially during the last 5 years, and to observe some of the lessons learned.!
May cause the A final example is the procedure to trip the reactor coolant pumps following an inadvertent safety injection actuation signal. This causes a loss of reactor coolant pressure control due to loss of the pressurizer sprays. The result often is upper-head voiding, a high pressurizer pressure, and opening of the PORVs. Again, the likelihood of a stuck open PORV is increased significantly. MINIMIZATION OF TRANSIENT SHIFTS It is important that the operation and maintenance of nuclear plants be carried out so as to ensure that the frequencies which have been assigned to these various categories of transients are not exceeded.