Americans All!: Foreign-born Soldiers in World War I by Nancy Gentile Ford

By Nancy Gentile Ford

During the 1st global struggle, approximately part one million immigrant draftees from forty-six diverse international locations served within the U.S. military. This surge of outdated international squaddies challenged the yankee military's cultural, linguistic, and spiritual traditions and required army leaders to think again their education equipment for the foreign-born troops. How did the U.S. struggle division combine this varied staff right into a united combating strength? The warfare division drew at the stories of innovative social welfare reformers, who labored with immigrants in city payment homes, they usually listened to commercial potency specialists, who hooked up wrestle functionality to morale and team of workers administration. probably most importantly, the army enlisted assistance from ethnic group leaders, who assisted in education, socializing, and Americanizing immigrant troops and who confused the army to acknowledge and meet the $64000 cultural and non secular wishes of the ethnic squaddies. those neighborhood leaders negotiated the Americanization approach by means of selling patriotism and loyalty to the U.S. whereas holding key ethnic cultural traditions. delivering a thrilling examine an unexplored sector of army historical past, american citizens All! Foreign-born infantrymen in international warfare I constitutes a piece of certain curiosity to students within the fields of army historical past, sociology, and ethnic reports. Ford's examine illuminates what it intended for the U.S. army to reexamine early twentieth-century nativism; rather than forcing squaddies right into a melting pot, conflict division guidelines created an environment that made either American and ethnic delight appropriate. throughout the battle, a German officer commented at the ethnic range of the yank military and famous, with a few amazement, that those ''semi-Americans'' thought of themselves to be ''true-born sons in their followed country.'' The officer used to be fallacious on one count number. The immigrant squaddies weren't ''semi-Americans''; they have been ''Americans all!''

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S. government, fearful that it would exasperate anti-Catholic nativism and slow up the acceptance of Irish Americans. Throughout their campaign, mainstream Irish Catholics such as the Irish dominated Knights of Labor consistently promoted loyalty to the United States organized around the principles of American patriotism. S. Declaration of War on April , , dashed the hopes of the German American and Irish American communities. While these groups failed to successfully affect American foreign policy, their efforts were important, nonetheless.

O’Leary was so outraged by Wilson’s response that he 22 AMERICANS ALL! issued a twenty-three-page public statement of defense and sent several telegrams to the president. 16 Other Irish American nationalists such as the National Trustee for the Friends of Irish Freedom, the Clan-na-Gael, and the Irish Progressive League pressured the president and Congress to recognize Ireland’s freedom and demanded that Great Britain do likewise. ”17 Although far less radical, the Catholic press and mainstream Irish newspapers also pushed for the strict neutrality of the United States and objected to British violation of international law and its domination of the war coverage in the American press.

Garfield, expressed concern over the possibility of losing too many Polish American miners in the coal fields. Garfield supporters argued that Poland, controlled by German forces, was technically an enemy of the United States and sought to stop development of the Polish Legion. Secretary of War Baker quickly put an end to these obstructions and recruitment in the legion continued. ”61 Polish enclaves organized “citizen committees” to promote recruitment and raise money for the American Polish units.

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