By von Kármán, Theodore

Fascinating, reader-friendly chronicle via a recognized pioneer in aerodynamic learn strains the advance of dynamic flight from the time of Newton during the twentieth century. It recounts struggles of engineers and physicists with difficulties linked to elevate, drag, balance, aeroelasticity, and the sound barrier. The publication includes seventy two figures.

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**Sample text**

Prandtl, an engineer by training, was endowed with rare vision for the understanding of physical phenomena and unusual ability in putting them into relatively simple mathematical form. His control of mathematical methods and tricks was limited; 50 T H E T H E O R Y O F LIFT many of his collaborators and followers surpassed him in solving difficult mathematical problems. But his ability to establish systems of simplified equations which expressed the essential physical relations and dropped the nonessentials was unique, I believe, even when compared with his great predecessors in the field of mechanics-men like Leonhard Euler (I707-1 783) and D’Alembert.

Around it, a force is produced equal to the product p u T per unit length of the cylinder. The direction of the force is normal both to the velocity U and the axis of the cylinder. So we have an explanation of the lift phenomenon if we can show that there is really circulation around the body. For the reader who likes to think in mathematical or geometrical terms, I will note that one can generalize the definition of circulation by taking the mean value of the component of the velocity along an arbitrary closed curve encircling a body and multiplying it by the length of arc of that curve.

1,Newton’s result is in error by more than a factor of 30. A comparison between Newton’s theory and the circulation theory is also seen in Fig. 14 (p. , the force component normal to the plate; whereas the lift is the component normal to the direction of the relative stream) plotted against the angle of attack. Limitation of the Wing Thory: Stall Fig. 23 shows that the usefulness of the theory is restricted to a limited range of angle of attack, comprising relatively small angles, positive and negative.