By Carlo C. DiClemente
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Extra resources for Addiction and change : how addictions develop and addicted people recover
As such it often allows individuals to use an integrative term while paying only lip service to aspects other than their primary area of interest. Biologically and physiologically oriented researchers talk about the biopsychosocial model whereas social influence advocates discuss the biopsychosocial model, and so on. This appears particularly true when the model is used for prevention or treatment considerations. It is difficult to intervene in multiple areas at the same time, and many of the risk and protective factors are not amenable to change (family of origin, geographic location, parental absence).
There is an interaction between the individual and the risk and protective factors that influence whether the individual becomes addicted and whether he or she leaves the addiction. The transitions into and out of addictions do not occur without the participation of the addicted individual. The individual is involved in how these influences are processed and whether their impact will be strong enough to overcome 20 UNDERSTANDING ADDICTIONS IN TERMS OF CHANGE contrary values and become incorporated into her or his value system.
In addition, there are predictable interactions between types of process activity and successful movement through specific parts of the stages of change sequence. Cognitive and experiential processes are more important in negotiating passage through the earlier stages of Precontemplation and Contemplation. Behavioral processes of 36 UNDERSTANDING ADDICTIONS IN TERMS OF CHANGE change are more important in the Preparation, Action, and Maintenance stages of change (DiClemente & Prochaska, 1998). As we learn more and more about the process of human behavior change, it appears that change-process activity matched to movement through the stages produces more successful change (Perz, DiClemente, & Carbonari, 1996).